FAQs: Covid-19 (the virus)
This article is about the virus itself. For information on how the virus is affecting how we live our everyday lives see: FAQs: Living with Covid-19. For information on the vaccine see: FAQs Covid-19 (the vaccine).
What we see as the key messages are in the box below.
The key messages about Covid-19 are very simple:
You can check the following for more specific advice for your country:
How do you catch Covid-19?
Through contact with someone who has it. It’s a respiratory virus meaning it affects lungs and breathing. It is spread through water droplets. The main thing is to avoid getting the water droplets carrying the virus onto your face. Larger droplets fall to ground or nearby surfaces but smaller ones can be blown around on the air for some time and over some distance, especially indoors. Talking can spread droplets as much if not more than coughing.
Most respiratory viruses such as corona viruses can live on surfaces for a few days. It depends on the surface and the temperature.
Viruses survive longest in colder, dry environments - that why we have respiratory viruses (such as colds and flu) in winter.
What are the symptoms of Covid-19?
There are three symptoms which the NHS says 'most people with coronavirus have at least one of'.
Since the start of the crisis, the NHS have listed high temperature and new continuous cough as the main symptoms. On Monday 18th May they added: loss of or changes in sense of taste or smell (meaning you cannot smell or taste anything, or things smell or taste different from normal).
There are other symptoms including breathlessness, headache, muscle ache and other symptoms typical to colds and flu. (For some, symptoms appear to develop over a few days: a high temperature, then a cough, then breathlessness.)
Do I need to take my temperature?
No. You can usually tell if you have a high temperature - your forehead, back or chest will feel hot. Some public places are checking people’s temperatures.
As regards coughing, the NHS say to look out for coughing a lot for more than an hour, or 3 or more coughing episodes in 24 hours. (If you usually have a cough, it may be worse than usual.)
But the truth there are many symptoms associated with the virus, many of which also appear in other conditions. To coin a phrase, stay alert. If you're feeling poorly and it persists, seek help.
How do I avoid Covid-19?
Am I at risk of Covid-19?
Yes. We’re all at risk. But it’s not just about you. If you’re young and fit, the virus in you may be less severe than in an older person (but not necessarily - it also kills young fit people). The point is you don’t want to be the person who passes a potential killer on to someone else. To minimise the impact of the virus, we all need to do these things mentioned above.
Many - but not all - of the people dying from Covid-19 are older and/or have existing health issues (such as diabetes or diseases of the lungs, heart or liver). For this reason, older people or those with existing health issues that may weaken their resistance need to be especially mindful of the guidance.
The lungs of children are not fully developed until their teens. It may offer some protection against this particular virus. But we really don't know how it affects children or how infectious they might be to others.
It’s a myth that young adults are not affected - Li Wenliang the Chinese doctor who first raised the alarm about the new virus and later died was only 34 years old.
It’s a respiratory virus so smokers who get the virus are at more risk of it being serious.
People from black, asian and minority ethnic (BAME) communities are also at higher risk.
I have symptoms
If you have:
- a high temperature and/or
- a new, continuous cough,
- loss or change to your sense of smell or taste
and you live alone, the NHS say you should use the 111 online Coronavirus service: 111.nhs.uk/covid-19
If your symptoms are mild, you'll probably be advised to stay at home (self-isolate). But, and this is very important, if you live with others, the whole household should self-isolate. You should try to keep contact with others in the house to a minimum. You can also get an isolation note for work though the online Coronavirus service.
Call NHS 111 if you can't get help online.
Call 111 or again visit 111.nhs.uk/covid-19 if an individual's symptoms get worse or do not clear up after seven days.
Don't go out if you're infectious. Under emergency powers, police and some other public officials will be able to detain you if they suspect you have Covid-19.
Can I get tested?
Theoretically. The goverment say tests to see whether you have the virus are available for:
- anyone in England and Wales who has symptoms of coronavirus, whatever their age
- anyone in Scotland and Northern Ireland aged over 5 who has symptoms of coronavirus
The official guidance explans how. Some places have mass testing.
You should be able to access 'priority testing' if you or someone in your household is an essential worker (the essential worker list is longer than you might think - not just NHS).
England are also testing: social care workers and residents in care homes, with or without symptoms and NHS workers and patients without symptoms, in line with NHS England guidance.
Have I had the virus?
Hard to say and not particularly useful information. There is an antibody test: a blood test detects if you have any antibodies to the virus which may have developed if you have the virus. In England, antibody tests are only currently available for NHS and care staff.
Two very big health warnings:
- A positive test showing you've had the virus would not guarantee you wouldn't get it again.
- Antibody testing is complicated. The government says that home antibody tests that work using a finger prick of blood are not reliable.
So can you get the virus twice?
Hard to say but probably. Official cases of reinfection are few but anecdotally, they are increasing. Moreover, research from Imperial College London published in October 2020 shows that Coronavirus antibodies in our blood reduce with time. (Antibodies are part of our body's natural reaction to an invader.)
People who have had Covid-19 will develop high levels of antibodies to it but the research shows that these fall over the months leaving the individual, theoretically, at risk again. The fall in antibodies appears to affect all ages with the smallest drop in the youngest age group (age 18-24) and the largest in the oldest group (age 75 plus).
However, antibodies are only part of the body's defence against Covid-19 and while important we don't yet know how big a role they play. The research author Professor Paul Elliot says: 'Our study shows that over time there is a reduction in the proportion of people testing positive for antibodies. It remains unclear what level of immunity antibodies provide, or for how long this immunity lasts.'
This research doesn't mean we can't develop a vaccine to Covid-19 but it does mean the vaccine may need regular boosters.
Will vitamin D help?
It won't do you any harm. Many of us are deficient in vitamin D anyway. And there is some evidence it may protect against more severe Covid-19. However, the government have been reluctant to get into this discussion and the official guidance from NICE is that more research is needed.
Dr Paul Chrisp, director of the Centre for Guidelines at NICE, said: 'While there is insufficient evidence to recommend vitamin D for the prevention or treatment of Covid-19 at this time, we encourage people to follow government advice on taking the supplement throughout the autumn and winter period'.
Vitamin D helps maintain healthy bone and muscle. The main source is sunlight. In the absence of this commodity, the current official advice is that everyone should take a daily 10 microgram (400 international units) vitamin D supplement from October to early March.
What is self-isolation?
The aim of self-isolation is to keep you away from others so that if you do have it, you don’t pass it on. It involves staying at home as separate as possible from others. Ideally, stay in your room. Use the bathroom after everyone else in your household and then clean it. Don’t share towels, utensils etc. Get delivered items left outside. The NHS has useful advice for those staying at home and there's more on this site.
I'm a carer.
Carers UK have published some useful guidance.
What about the vaccine?
We have a separate page on this.
What about the pneumonia vaccine? I've heard that most Covid-19 deaths are pneumonia.
Probably not effective in this case as Covid-19 causes viral pneumonia. Respiratory physician Professor John Wilson, who is president-elect of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians, said: 'The pneumonia vaccine is aimed at a bacterial infection (pneumococcus) not a viral pneumonia.'
John also ruled out the flu vaccine. 'The influenza vaccine is closer, but this is a different virus and (the vaccine is) not known to be active against Covid-19.'
However, you should get a flu vaccine if you can, as high levels of Covid -19 plus high levels of flu will put the NHS under serious strain. The number of people eligible for a free flu vaccine has been increased. See if you're eligible.
How do I find out more about Covid-19?
Outside England, there's also:
Date of last review 20/01/21
Date of next review 25/01/21
- World Health Organisation
- China research
- Men more affected (use link above if this fails)
- Men and flu
- Virus survival on surfaces
- Virus survival on surfaces
- Virus survival on surfaces
- PHE on facemasks
- UEA face mask research
- Death totals
- Scotland - face coverings
- Five tests
- R number
- Antibody tests
- Coronavirus antibody prevalence falling in England, REACT study shows
- Vitamin D NICE
- Vitamin D overview
It’s tough for men to ask for help but if you don’t ask when you need it, things generally only get worse. Especially during a major pandemic like Covid-19. So we’re asking.
Men appear more likely to get Covid-19 and far, far more likely to die from it. The Men's Health Forum are working hard pushing for more action on this from government, from health professionals and from all of us. Why are men more affected and what can we do about it? We need the data. We need the research. We need the action. Currently we're the only UK charity doing this - please help us.
Here’s our fund-raising page - please chip in if you can.